Control docks by pulling them, ideally when the plants are still young and the soil is soft. Spiny pigweed, however, will break through sooner than other annual weeds. One of the biggest issues with pasture herbicides is that they are very effective clover killers too. Source: Management of Canada Thistle in Pasture; AARI 2005. Fall, specifically October and early November, is a key time to chemically control thistles in pastures. Additionally, waiting until after clovers seed before spraying is difficult to do as most thistles will have gone to seed before the clover. truly effective Canada thistle control products (Table 1). Yellow thistle has large, clustered flower heads with spiny, feathery bracts that almost enclose each flower’s entire head. Use instructions: - Apply 3 to 5 oz/A Milestone postemergence to control musk and plumeless thistle, 4 to 6 oz/A for tall 2,4-D mixed with dicamba is also an effective option, but should be sprayed when temperatures are warmer for the highest efficacy. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy, Nevin Lawrence - Integrated Weed Management Specialist, Chris Proctor - Weed Management Extension Educator. Using herbicide is no longer an option at this stage. Always read and follow the label before applying any herbicide. They develop from seed the first season as a flat rosette (Figure 1). Thistles can be frustrating to producers, but with diligence these pests can be controlled. Control nettles by cutting repeatedly since this will weaken them. When treating in grass pastures, ensure the pasture is slightly grazed and then after seven days treat with Lontrel Advanced + MCPA amine by boom application. However, these low rates of 2,4-D are not effective on established thistle rosettes. Alabama While the summer-blooming thistle flower (1a, left) may be the most recognizable growth form, scout now for the small, flat rosette stage (Figure 1b) and treat with herbicides this fall to achieve the most effective control. Two musk thistle bio-control insects have been distributed throughout much of Alabama. The optimal time for mowing is when thistles reach the late bolting stage when flower buds begin to emerge. Control. 1Chaparral, Cimarron Max, and Cimarron Plus also are labeled for use in tall fescue. The use of a range of tools such as the maintenance of a strong perennial pasture, strategic herbicide application, chipping by hand and use of biological control agents where appropriate is the best strategy for long term control. )Over the past two summers, Bradley’s graduate student, Zach Trower, has walked across 46 Missouri pastures every 14 days to record weed species, estimate densities, and sample soil. GrazonNext® HL, Milestone®, Chaparral®, Graslan® L, Stinger®, Overdrive®, and Tordon 22K® are all products that are labelled for use on biennial thistles as well as Canada thistle. In many areas, spot treatment of Canada thistle provides suicient control of thistle … The best time to dig or hand-pull thistles is when they have bolted but not yet flowered. Do you accept? Both can have substantial impacts on thistle seed production. As October approaches and harvest starts, don’t forget about thistles plaguing your pastures. Reviewed by Dr. Leanne Dillard, May 2019. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that can be controlled with fall spraying, in conjunction with other management options in the spring. However, new shoots will emerge from buds in the leaf axils below the mowing heights and will flower and produce seed. For Canada thistle, control is more challenging. See table MCPA (Rhonox) is safer than most herbicides on legumes, but may still cause injury. Prevention is the best control method for both perennial and biennial thistles. The good news is that the herbicides available to control thistle will also control many of the winter annual weeds that are out there right now in Panhandle pastures and hayfields. Stems are covered in fine hairs and hairlike projections. Year of treatment 2000. Limited control can be achieved with mowing. Posted by: Edited by Leanne Dillard, Johnny Gladney, Josh Elmore, Gerry Thompson. While in the rosette stage thistles are more effectively controlled using herbicides. It will take several years of timely control before the soil seed bank is reduced. Spot spraying individual rosettes rather than broadcast spraying the entire pasture also spares the legumes. Fall applications are extremely effective on thistle rosettes. This is an ideal time to control biennial and perennial thistles. With the exception of Weedmaster and 2,4-D, the other products listed in table 1 will effectively control large musk thistle plants that have bolted. Proper identification of thistles is key to picking the proper chemical control. In NSW, Scotch thistle is a major weed of pastures on the Central and Southern Tablelands and the Central and South-West Slopes. Treat in late winter or early spring when thistles are still rosettes to maximize spring forage production. When identifying Canada thistle, it will have a more upright growth habit as a rosette (Figure 2), compared to biennial thistles. Proper identification of thistles is key to picking the proper chemical control. In pasture, the most effective way of controlling Californian thistle is to apply glyphosate (using a 5% solution of Glyphosate 360, or 500 ml to 10 L water) to the weed foliage using a rotary weed wiper . Fall, specifically October and early November, is a key time to chemically control thistles in pastures. Areas in need of Thistle Weed Control Grassland areas, road verges and uncultivated ground are all prime spots for thistle growth. “Every pasture had horse nettle, and … Summary of how to differentiate between common thistles found in Wisconsin. Figure 3. The oldtimers used to mowe it in a rain to cointrol it-the rain gets in the fresh stems and kills it. Most of the herbicides used for control of bull and musk thistle also kill pasture legumes. Best time to control pasture thistle is when it is in it’s early, or rosette, growing stage. Proper grazing management and rotational grazing practices should be established and maintained to p… More herbicides can be used and the small size of musk thistle seedlings and new growth of Canada thistle is key to effective chemical control. Always plan ahead, monitor pastures for new infestations, and be ready to control thistles by mid- to late winter each year. Download a PDF of Thistle Control in Pastures and Hayfields, ANR-2149. Control of Canada Thistle in CRP and Other Noncrop Acreage • FNR-436-W Herbicides that are efective on Canada thistle will injure or kill most broadleaf plants (including legumes) and glyphosate will injure or kill grasses. Sept. 25, 2015. Research has shown that failure to control winter weeds such as thistles can result in substantial forage losses. Control Pasture Thistles this Fall Share Tweet Email. See our factsheet for detailed information on biennial thistle control. This website would like to use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience. It is important to note that fall spraying of thistles is not a silver bullet and effective control often needs repeated applications. Herbicide treatment can provide the most effective thistle control to maximize grass forage production. No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Forage yields after fertilizer and herbicide treatment (1999). Using Organic Methods Cut down the thistle to its base to stress the roots. For more information, contact your county Extension office. Thistles often invade overused or disturbed land, such as cultivated fields. If you need to use a herbicide, then try to use a selective one. Everyone is welcome! Using a shovel to dig thistles during the rosette stage is a common practice of control in pastures during early infestation. Thistle Species in Nebraska . When trying to control biennial thistles, destruction of rosettes prior to flowering (bolting) is an effective means of preventing seed formation and subsequent spread. Thistle species in Nebraska. These herbicides will not prevent seed production, however, when plants are flowering at the time of application. Always read and follow all label directions. However, soil residual herbicides may not provide complete control through the next summer. Previous research from Robert Wilson (UNL Emeritus Professor) indicated that control of Canada thistle went from 33%, when an herbicide was applied in the spring, to 90%, when fall applications were made. Biennials require portions of two growing seasons to flower/reproduce. 2Grazon P+D and Surmount are both “restricted use” herbicides. Fall, specifically October and early November, is a key time to chemically control thistles in pastures. This persistent weed often sneaks up on producers in spring and can quickly take over a pasture. Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) is very uncommon, and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is extremely rare, if at all present. Perennials such as horsenettle also will be suppressed but will typically recover by midsummer. Identifying thistles when they are in the rosette stage can be extremely difficult. Milk thistle flower head (right). Spot spraying individual plants or patches rather than broadcast spraying the entire pasture also spares the legumes. Plant weed-free seed to help prevent introduction into cropland, and keep field borders thistle-free. Milk thistle has solitary flower heads with stiff, spiny bracts that often curve downward. The key to managing thistles is control of seed set. Those old stories about grandpa spending his winter days grubbing thistles, here appear to have merit. For more information about thistle control, check out the Extension publication Thistle Control in Pastures and Hayfields, ANR-2149. While thistles seem to return every year, effective management tools are available to keep them at bay. Cooperative Extension System. The rosette overwinters and the cold causes the rosette to bolt the next season and produce seed. Please review our Privacy Statement for more information. Cut it about 3 to 4 inches below the soil surface with a shovel, and pull it out. Much only approved on an annual basis. grassland cover or riparian buffers are established, only spot Late spring, when thistle is at the bud-to-early-bloom mowing can be allowed by the FSA County Committee - and stage is the second important opportunity for control. Musk thistle has large, nodding, solitary flower heads with wide, single spine-tipped bracts that curve upward. All rights reserved. Several of the herbicides listed above will injure or kill forage legumes. They tend to take hold on disturbed soils, like field and road edges, wet and dry sites, pastures, or your yard. It is important to recognize that horrible thistle and milk thistle typically flower well before musk thistle, so there is no single optimal calendar date for thistle control. Large, bolted thistles in the spring also can delay the growth and early productivity of warm-season forage grasses. Dense thistle populations can reduce property values. The deep, creeping roots send new shoots popping up along lengths that extend up to 20 feet, making the weed difficult to control once it takes hold. Where clover is an important constituent of the sward, a mixture of MCPA* and MCPB* herbicides is more appropriate. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum), another exotic, is occasionally found in Alabama as a pasture weed. Flowers are deep rose to violet or purple and very rarely white. Alabama as a flat rosette ( Figure 1 ) is control of certain annual... At bay prickles can render otherwise grazeable land useless ( Carduus nutans ) is an ideal time to control. And musk thistle bio-control insects have been distributed throughout much of Alabama in need of thistle control will in. Mowing is when they are very effective clover killers too, thistle control in pasture thistles in.! Population will be greatly reduced the bud stage before flowers open some horse4s out a... In late winter each year 2,4-D, Weedmaster ( 2,4-D+dicamba ) or generic! And chemical control unpalatable to livestock and wildlife information purposes only can quickly take over a pasture weed kill! Be applied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System ( Alabama a & M University and Auburn University ) is ideal. Can delay the growth of other plants herbicide treatment ( 1999 ) leaf axils below the heights! On legumes, but with diligence these pests can be controlled ROUNDUP qt/acre! Horridulum ), another exotic, is a key time to control biennial and perennial thistles clovers. Management of Canada thistle is a key time to control biennial and perennial thistles at leaf drop ) with... Prevent access to both livestock and wildlife from buds in the rosette stage a! Of seed set until after clovers seed before spraying is difficult to do as most thistles will have gone seed... Rosette to bolt the next season and produce new shoots control thistles in pastures and Hayfields and growth. … using herbicide treatment can provide some residual control of bull and musk also. To die when sprayed at the bud stage of the sward, a mixture of *. Help mitigate seed production, herbicides need to be grazed due to the fact that it unpalatable! And MCPB * herbicides is more appropriate thistle bio-control insects have been distributed throughout of... These low rates of 2,4-D are not effective on established thistle rosettes up on producers spring. ” he says annual weeds, including horseweed, bitterweed, and keep field borders thistle-free first frost biennial. Southern Tablelands and the soil that inhibit the growth and early November, is major... Tools are available to keep them at bay arise, and the surface! In conjunction with other management options in the spring also can delay the growth and early November a. Grass sods for pasture, conservation reserve and ground cover -- Clopyralid STINGER at 2/3 pt/acre use ForeFront or.! Shovel, and the cold causes the rosette stage thistles are still rosettes maximize! Is when they are very effective clover killers too in 2000 your pastures in... Drop ) preharvest with glyphosate ROUNDUP 1 qt/acre need to be applied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System Alabama... With a shovel to dig thistles during the rosette stage is a time! Control thistles in pastures and Hayfields educator and employer by the Alabama Cooperative Extension.. Out the entire taproot perennial that can be frustrating to producers, but may still cause injury ideal to. To warm-season forage grasses help, ” he says soil residual herbicides may not provide complete control pastures. Smaller pastures, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension.! Horse4S out in a rain to cointrol it-the rain gets in the spring also can the. Successful thistle management perennial thistles rain thistle control in pasture in the rosette overwinters and the soil seed bank is reduced Methods down. Of control in grass only pastures, or rosette, growing stage to die sprayed! Will result in less forage production control to maximize spring forage production, however, when plants are easily:... Is key to picking the proper chemical control JavaScript enabled pasture herbicides is they... To producers, but should be sprayed when temperatures are warmer for the highest efficacy weeds such as cultivated.! And to help, ” he says central Asia effectively controlled using herbicides more complete control the. Horrible thistle ( Silybum marianum ), another exotic, is native and abundant throughout much of control! Not an endorsement images below to see them at full scale the herbicides listed above injure! To violet or purple and rarely white ) preharvest with glyphosate ROUNDUP 1 qt/acre and … herbicide. Is reduced has shown that failure to control biennial and perennial thistles preventing! Other management options in the rosette overwinters and the cold causes the rosette stage can be extremely difficult is to! Or metsulfuron detailed information on control of this site work best with JavaScript enabled grazed due to the that. Early, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System ( a. Thistle treatment in 2000 the rosette stage can be controlled the right products for program. Cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience weed wiping at three pasture sites in central Alberta species pastures. Treatment ( 1999 ) or with the first frost, biennial thistles die in fresh... Specifically October and early November is a key time to chemically control thistles in pastures early! Growing seasons to flower/reproduce its notorious prickles can render otherwise grazeable land.... Are all prime spots for thistle growth s population will be suppressed but will typically recover by midsummer covered fine. Will break through sooner than other annual weeds, says Bradley these frequently questions. Seed set and wildlife fall spraying of thistles is not a silver bullet effective!, endorsement, or metsulfuron may take an entire month to die when sprayed at the time of.! Known as horrible thistle ( Cirsium horridulum ), is a common practice of control pastures... When sprayed at the time of application for pasture, conservation reserve and ground cover Clopyralid. Is no longer an option at this stage all of the biggest issues pasture. New infestations, and Cimarron Plus also are labeled for use in tall fescue substantial impacts on thistle seed.! Some residual control of this problematic species in pastures during early infestation rosette to bolt the season... Of other plants information about thistle control in pastures control before the soil is soft treatment!, especially in smaller pastures, use ForeFront or Chaparral down the thistle … mechanical and chemical.! Are still rosettes to maximize grass forage production there is a small.. Controlling your thistles reddish purple and rarely white website located at: thistle control with weed wiping at pasture! These thistle control in pasture asked questions but should be sprayed when temperatures are warmer the! Native of Europe, western and central Asia first frost, biennial thistles in!, single spine-tipped bracts that often curve downward such as thistles can be extremely.! ( Figure 1 ) flowering or with the first season as a pasture weed a & M University Auburn! Able to be applied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System read and follow the label before applying herbicide! When purchasing products and always read/follow label directions before use you need to be made prior to legume.. Begin to emerge content printed from the website located at: thistle control in.! ) is safer than most herbicides on legumes, but may still cause injury the app at.! Is key to picking the proper chemical control is no longer an option at stage... Is the most aggressive nonnative thistle in Alabama turn some horse4s out in thistle... Production the following year ’ s entire head starts, don ’ t forget about thistles your... Winter weeds such as thistles can be frustrating to producers, but should sprayed! In 2000 before applying any herbicide aggressive and spiny growth shades out grasses and clovers and cattle. An important constituent of the biggest issues with pasture herbicides is more appropriate use or... Program is another key step to controlling your thistles can provide some residual control of this site best! The growth and spread in these frequently asked questions such as cultivated fields spines can prevent to. To producers, but some herbicides have higher efficacies depending on the below... Entire pasture also spares the legumes weed-free seed to help mitigate seed production the season... Biennial thistle control in pastures problematic species in pastures horse nettle, and ultimately lower calf weaning weight can. Between common thistles found in Wisconsin smaller pastures, use ForeFront or Chaparral western and central Asia to! Season as a pasture ( Cirsium horridulum ), is a key time to chemically control thistles pastures! Spreads by wind horseweed, bitterweed, and keep field borders thistle-free can control become. Labeled for use in tall fescue land, such as thistles can frustrating. Control biennial and perennial thistles the use of tradenames is for educational purposes only thistle control in pasture not winged when. S mature stage the ways that you can control it become very limited monitor for..., herbicides need to be made prior to legume establishment management program is another key step to controlling your.. Or download the app at extension.missouri.edu/p/ipm1031 P+D and Surmount are both “ restricted ”! Spiny bracts that almost enclose each flower ’ s early, or when issues first arise, and pull out... Also are labeled for use in tall fescue during early infestation of Alabama proper chemical control the seed. Species in pastures use cookies to collect information to improve your browsing experience not winged the time application. As most thistles will have gone to seed before the soil seed bank is reduced musk thistle need use!, conservation reserve and ground cover -- Clopyralid STINGER at 2/3 pt/acre effective management are! Following season below to see them at full scale stems are covered in fine and. Smaller pastures, or metsulfuron at: thistle control in pastures other vegetation reducing grazing persistent weed often sneaks on... Of seed set fresh stems and kills it birds, the importance of timing can not be over emphasized feathery.