Hendrik Monsees, 0000087199 00000 n In this study, we collected technical, economic and production data from a pilot aquaponic plant producing lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) realized in an urban context in Sicily (Southern Italy), very suitable area for aquaponic production in relation to the Mediterranean climate. As a result of water treatment and low water consumption, nutrients (mainly nitrogen in the form of nitrate) and organic matter (often specified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total organic carbon (TOC)) accumulate within these systems [8–10]. The pH of the water was kept at around 7.2 and controlled by addition of calcium hydroxide, the temperature was 25°C and the oxygen concentration remained always above 5.5 mg L-1. It was found by Radi, Mahrouz [61] that P fertilizer did not have a strong effect on phenolic compounds in comparison to N and K. S, however, mainly effects S containing secondary metabolites like glucosinolates [63], which is generally found in Brassica species. Thus, significant differences in the nutrient concentrations of the different treatment groups had obviously no negative effects on the plant growth. Choose the tank carefully. Hydroponic tanks Rearing tanks Effluent line Sump Clarifier Filter tanks Return line Base addition Degassing System Design Total water volume - 110 m3 Land area - 0.05 ha . 0000065428 00000 n In humans, they are mainly ingested via fruits and beverages. The control was prepared with fresh and rain water (50:50, v/v), APunt and APdis were prepared with fish water. Additionally, the reduced fertilizer demand using decoupled aquaponics can contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of an annual lettuce production site per ha by 72% due to saving the energy for fertilizer production. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations esp. Funding: This work has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (https://ec.europa.eu/research/fp7/index_en.cfm) under grant agreement no 619137 (HM and JS). ��#���H0*0r�AF�D�����ig*�H�. Similarly, Anadu and Barho (2002) compared the production of tomatoes and lettuce grown with blue tilapia in an aquaponic system with those grown in the convention soil. 0000005722 00000 n 1995. Except global radiation, the mean values during daytime and night time are shown. Lettuce Raft Production in 25 Days; New Vertical Stacking Component. Compared to the reported CFU in RAS, rearing marine see bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) [48], the total content of CFU in fish water was relatively low in the present study. According to this hypothesis, the present study should have resulted in differences between conventional and aquaponic treatments. It can have negative effects to human health when it is converted to nitrite by microorganisms [65]. 0000064923 00000 n Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218368.t001. Validation, Lettuce production in aquaponic and hydroponic systems 53 In aquaponic production, catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) were cultivated as they adapt to harsh environmental conditions, and they have the ability to tolerate the low oxygen concentration and the range of water salinity. The significant differences between both aquaponic treatments were minor, though partially significant. 0000002903 00000 n However, in the following weeks, the values dropped and were not significantly different any more. The less stable pH in the nutrient solution of the control (Fig 2) may be a result of the higher ratio of NH4-N (Table 4). Yes Here, a RAS would primarily serve the purpose of nitrogen production. However, as already mentioned, it seems that the increased TOC/DOC content in the aquaponics treatments did not have a positive effect on plant growth here. pre-process) could be reduced by 72.6% in comparison to the control. As hypothesized by Delaide, Goddek [21], RAS derived carbon sources or microorganisms might have beneficial effects on plant growth cannot be supported in the present study. As Tilman, Balzer [2] reported, the global crop demand will increase by 100–110% from 2005 to 2050. No, Is the Subject Area "Fertilizers" applicable to this article? building and operating a RAS, feed production, etc. Yes Writing – review & editing, Affiliation In addition to the aquaponic production units each farm also consisted of the appropriate size of water, feed and cold storage facilities, office and work room areas, trucks, tractors and wagons, greenhouse nurseries, brood fish holding and breeding tanks and hatchery. 0000064434 00000 n While greenhouses have long been a means to provide year-round vegetable production, aquaponics is a relatively new technology that uses a closed-loop system to produce both plants and fish. After incubation colonies were counted and CFU per mL was calculated. The quantity of the dye is measured by a reflectometer. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Institute of Biology, Department of Endocrinology, Berlin, Germany, Roles PDF. Therefore, the composition of humic substances may vary and might be different from RAS to RAS, and study to study. The composition of phenolic compounds determined in the present study were already described for green lettuce and within the reported levels by DuPont, Mondin [57], Llorach, Martínez-Sánchez [58], and Ribas-Agustí, Gratacós-Cubarsí [59]. The EC in APdis was always significantly higher than in the control, except in week 1. Both, N and K did not differ in the nutrient solution used for the different treatments in the present study. 0000004307 00000 n Nevertheless, the NH4-N content was significantly higher in the control compared to both aquaponics treatments, whereas the NO3-N contents were comparable. 82 m³ fertilizer stock solution, compare Table 3). As reported, humic acids added to hydroponics may have different effects on plant growth, e.g. Arizona accounted for 29% of total U.S. lettuce production, and the state used up 69% of all freshwater withdrawal solely for agriculture … The macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cu, B) were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, iCAP 6300Duo MFC, Fa. The vegetables grew much faster in aquaponics system, and tomatoes started flowering 2 weeks earlier than soil-grown tomatoes. The nutrient solutions for control were prepared with fresh and rain water (50:50, v/v) and for APunt and APdis with fish water. As such, a more or less continuous increasing EC value from the beginning of the experiment (2.2 dS m-1) to the 7th week (around 3.0 dS m-1) was observed. The CO2-equivalents were thereby calculated using the open source database ProBas of the Federal Environment Agency of Germany [28]. 0000087684 00000 n For analysing mineral elements in lettuce leaves, 0.498 to 0.502 gram of a freeze dried sample were weighted into special, de-ionised vessels and subsequently analysed by ICP-OES. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218368.g002. The control was prepared with fresh and rain water (50:50, v/v), APunt and APdis were prepared with fish water. Aquaponic Food Production. The highest cost of a backyard yard aquaponics system is the greenhouse structure. Demsar and Osvald [69], for instance, found a reduced nitrate content of 13% by feeding at a NO3:NH4 ratio of 6.6:1. 0000078355 00000 n The actual reduction was calculated referring to the control as 100%. Decoupled aquaponic systems have the potential to become one of the most effective sustainable production systems for the combined production of animal protein and plant crops. Additionally, in this setup, both aquaponic nutrient solutions were exclusively prepared with fish water, thus no additional freshwater was required (Table 3). Investigation, 0000078649 00000 n After filtration, around 15 mL were used to flush the ICP-OES, and 45 mL were used for analysis. For disinfection, the prepared nutrient solution was heated in a 150 L pot made from stainless steel to > 95°C for 15 min using a butane gas burner (3.6 kW) and three heating rods (stainless steel, 2 kW each). However, there is a paucity of information establishing the efficiency of this system over other conventional methods of fish and vegetable production. The aim of the present study was to characterize hydroponic lettuce production using conventional nutrient solution in comparison with decoupled aquaponics using the nutrient rich fish water as basis for the nutrient solution being supplemented by missing nutrients. , leaf Area and dry matter content of DOC/TOC as well as microorganisms derived from fish water to mix nutrient..., except in week 7 concept that combines fish and provides nutrients plant! Used in lettuce production in aquaponic systems include chinese cabbage, tomatoes, okra, cantaloupe and peppers! Conventional and aquaponic vegetable production nor detrimental effects on the content of lettuce grown in hydroponic can be adjusted the... More information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here at around 6 before decreased! Consequently, a lower nitrogen concentration [ 75 ] would have resulted in lower nitrate concentration without the! The root zone itself can have negative effects on plant growth in aquaponic ’., matching the right plant to the specific demands of the nutrient solution as given.! K did not differ significantly from each other in the human diet [ ]. And beverages have neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on plant growth in systems... The conventional nutrient solution compared to APdis of Germany [ 28 ] protection of the lettuce heads grown under conditions. Co2-Equivalents were thereby calculated using the open source database ProBas of the respective samples heads, which were sampled... Tion and aquaponic vegetable production are essentially the same vegetable production are essentially same. Weekly production of hydroponics system is higher than aquaponics and stored in a temperature-controlled.... % DM ) have been published so far [ 16, 29 ] who documented no significant in. Water system or even higher GHG emissions could be reduced by 62.8 % using fish water to... 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