Parthenium is a genus of North American shrubs in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family.. you. However, parthenium may germinate and grow at this time. It defoliates and often kills the weed, and its damage to the young flowering tops reduces seed production. in part by the National Science Foundation. Parthenium hysterophorus is an annual herb that is especially prolific in disturbed habitats, such as along roadsides and railway tracks, river and creek banks, in stock yards, around buildings and on wasteland, from where it spreads and invades agricultural systems (EPPO, 2018; PROTA, 2018). Parthenium hysterophorus was the most common aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium strumarium, positive in two. It has now distributed in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world [1]. Gas exchange studies in Parthenium hysterophorus L., a weed recently introduced into central Queensland, indicate that its limits of distribution may be very wide in the humid and subhumid regions of Australia. All rights reserved. Cheyne-Stokes breathing. (Wetland indicator code: [19][20][21] It also is responsible for bitter milk disease in livestock when their fodder is polluted with Parthenium leaves.[22]. Parthenium lobatum Buckl. Headache, extending to nose. state. Under conditions of high leaf water potential, the maximum rate of apparent photosynthesis of cabinet-grown plants was 77 ng cm-2 sec-1, with a temperature optimum of 28°C. Discover thousands of New England plants. To reuse an Keywords: Aggressive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, Biodiversity, Invasive weed, Tanzania. For details, please check with your state. Fig. Genus Parthenium Species Parthenium hysterophorus Variety - ลักษณะทางพฤษศาสตร์ (Botanical characteristics)-เมื่อโตเต็มที่สามารถสูงได้ถึง 30-90 เซนติเมตร The main substance responsible is parthenin, which is dangerously toxic. post Copyright: various copyright holders. Santa Maria feverfew is probably native to Mexico, Central America and parts of South America, but it has expanded its range around the world. Lakshmi & Srin-ivas (2007) mentioned that P. hysterophorus is anemo-philous, while Vedanthan & al. These include at least two more species of beetles that have been released in South Africa, a stem boring weevil Listronotus setosipennis, and a seed weevil Smicronyx lutulentus. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for [16], The plant produces allelopathic chemicals that suppress crop and pasture plants, and allergens that affect humans and livestock. Can you please help us? Family Part… Bitter-broom. E. Fornias brought Parthen. 2017; 9(2): 64-68. doi: 10.5958/0975-4385.2017.00011.5 Read More Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Buxus wallichiana Baill wood [14][15] As an invader it first appeared as a contaminant in imported wheat. Parthenium Parthenium hysterophorus 3 Grazing during winter should not increase the parthenium risk. Both mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts accumulate starch. to exist in the county by Among other allelopathic effects of the species, the presence of Parthenium pollen grains inhibits fruit set in tomato, brinjal, beans, and a number of other crop plants. It is native to the American tropics. However, other species that appear to have established usefully include a leaf-mining moth, Bucculatrix parthenica; a stem-galling weevil, Conotrachelus albocinereus; and a root-boring moth Carmenta ithacae. Geographic subdivisions for Parthenium hysterophorus: SCo : MAP CONTROLS 1. [6] It is a common invasive species[7] in India,[8] Australia, and parts of Africa. Tincture of the dry plant. State documented: documented Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae.It is native to the American tropics. None of our patients reacted to HDM or cat and dog dander which are commonly found to be associated with atopic dermatitis. Note: when native and non-native CT, MA. 42, 71). Res. [24], McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, et al. Crop Research (Hisar), 19(2), 221-224. All Characteristics, alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem, basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant, the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes, the edge of the leaf blade has no teeth or lobes, the bracts appear thin, flexible and nearly translucent, the bracts have a similar texture to a leaf, the disk is flat or nearly flat across the top, the inflorescence is flat-topped in profile, the inflorescence is not flat-topped but appears rounded, with some flower heads distinctly higher than others, the ovary has five or more corners in cross-section, in profile, the ovary is lance-shaped, but widest above the middle, in profile, the ovary is roughly egg-shaped, but widest above the middle, the leaves are nearly similar in size, prominence of teeth, and length of stalks throughout the stem, the lower leaves are larger, toothier, and/or on longer stalks than the upper leaves, the leaves have no leaf stalks, but attach directly to the stem, the leaf has a row of two or more lobes on each side of the central axis, the leaf has a row of two or more lobes on each side of the central axis, and each lobe itself has rows of lobes on each side of the lobe's central axis. In this study, a low-cost, sustainable biosorbent parthenium (P. hysterophorus L.) weed powder was investigated for the treatment of Pb contaminated wastewater. [1] Common names include Santa-Maria,[2] Santa Maria feverfew,[3] whitetop weed,[4] and famine weed. (1998). 2011 51(1) From. Most tropical grasses are dormant and can tolerate moderate grazing during this period. The name Parthenium is an evolution of the Greek name for the plant, παρθένιον (parthenion). the state. 3 Parthenium hysterophorus adsorbent SEM images before (A) and after (B) adsorption treatment (9 100) Table 5 Adsorption matrix of chromium removal from synthetic tannery wastewater You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. 1. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields, Occurs only in non-wetlands. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within pollen grains of P. hysterophorus ranging from 0 to 10 in the air across Kolkata, India. P. hysterophorus growing/flowering season starts from March–April till August–September. Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is such an invasive weed species, having immense ecological and agricultural impacts . Take a photo and Parthenium hysterophorus Santa Maria feverfew This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. First International Conference on Parthenium Management (Vol. Nevertheless, it is often used in herbal medicine to treat conditions including tuberculosis, dysentery and ague, and animal studies have shown antitumor activity in mice. Answer: Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is one of the most aggressive invasive weeds, threatening natural ecosystems and agroecosystems in over 30 countries worldwide.Parthenium weed causes losses of crops and pastures, degrading the biodiversity of natural plant communities, causing human and animal health hazards and resulting in serious economic losses to people and … Non-native: introduced Physicochemical characteristics of the biosorbent were measured, namely, bulk density as 0.42 g cm -3 , porosity as 45%, BET surface area as 20.79 m 2 g -1 , particle size as <125 μm, moisture content as 68% and point of zero charge as 5.6. It usually grows 0.5-1.5 m tall, but can occasionally reach up to 2 m or more in height. The two with the greatest effect seem to be the beetle Zygogramma bicolorata and a stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana. L. E. Santa Maria feverfew. in 20 years). Fevers. (2014) pointed out that it is entomophilous. ", "Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update", "Integrated weed management for parthenium", "Campaign launched for biological control of a dangerous weed", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parthenium_hysterophorus&oldid=993551050, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 05:15. to light (H.R., i. Congress grass, Parthenium hysterophorus L., of the family Asteraceae (tribe: Heliantheae), is an erect and much branched annual or ephermeral herb, known for its notorious role as environmental, medical, and agricultural hazards. Escoba amargo. Different parts of the plant are reported to be used as bitter tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anti-dyscentric, etc.7 The decoction of P. The most satisfactory and promising means of practical long-term control are biological. In various countries, such as Australia and South Africa, several other biocontrol agents have been released or are under evaluation. Clinical . In the present work, the pharmacognostic, pharmacological and allelopathic traits of various parts (root, stem and leaves) of P. hysterophorus grown in Pakistan were investigated. ABSTRACT: Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn.) *N. O. Compositae (tribe Heliantheae). Parthenium hysterophorus Go Botany: Native Plant Trust The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. Parthenium hysterophorus. Oudhia, P., Tripathi, R. S., Choubey, N. K., & Lal, B. [5] In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghas. 2020 Parthenium hysterophorus is an aggressive and noxious weed native to tropical central and South America. It is a common invasive species in India, Australia, and parts of Africa. The weedy species Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) possesses a Kranz-like leaf anatomy. The best-established control organism so far is a beetle native to Mexico, Zygogramma bicolorata, which was first introduced to India in 1984. (2000). Various management strategies, including chemical, cultural, mechanical, and biological, have been used against weeds around the world (Melander et al. Characteristics. Parthenium hysterophorus L. is one of the world's seven most devastating and hazardous weeds ( Patel, 2011 ). those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). County documented: documented Synonyms It since has become widespread and well-established on the subcontinent. [23], Also in South Africa, rust fungi have been of some use: the winter rust Puccinia abrupta var. An alkaloid Parthenia was isolated by C. J. Ulrice, of Havana, and Dr. J. L. Duenas published experiments with this on the human organism and on animals. Weed Research. It is one of the most troublesome weed among a sighting. ARC-PPRI Fact Sheets on Invasive Alien Plants and their Control in South Africa|, CRC for Australian Weed Management: Best Practice Guide. [18], Contact with the plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, and dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals. Mature stems are greenish and longitudinally grooved, covered in small stiff hairs (hirsute), and become much branched at maturity. 1.  Abortion. Direct incorporation of Parthenium residues to soil may exhibit allelopathic effects affecting the growth and establishment of crops ( Singh et al., 2005 ). Introduction of alien species into new area poses a threat to extinction of indigenous species due to (a) their high nutrient requirement (b) their symbiotic relationship (c) absence of their natural predators (d) more intraspecific competition. (intentionally or Light infestations of Parthenium hysterophorus in cultivated fields may be hoed or weeded by hand if labour is available at acceptable cost. Oudhia, P. and Tripathi, R.S. The name is possibly derived from the Greek word παρθένος (parthenos) which means "virgin".. Parthenium or Gajar Ghans is the most common invasive species in India. It shows hazardous effect on human health, livestock as well as it reduces the crop production due to its allelopathic effect. Parthenium hysterophorus is a new entry and successfully growing on all types of soils in fields and waste lands.Parthenium is drought resistant highly resistant weed which sustain its survival in highly unfavorable conditions where other delicate flora can not grow. Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. Generally the application of herbicides is expensive and often harmful; Paraquat sprays may be applied while the weeds are young. It is also present in rangelands, coastal dunes, villages, gardens, along streams, rivers, plant nurseries and … The alternately arranged leaves are simple with stalks (petioles) up to 2 cm long and form a basal rosette during the early stage… Parthenium hysterophorus, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not native to California. (c) Parthenium hysterophorus (d) all of these. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. The bundle sheath cells are thick-walled and contain numerous granal chloroplasts, prominent mitochondria, and peroxisomes, all largely arranged in a centripetal position. Also covers The plant has tap root with numerous rootlets and root hairs. 2. Parthenium hysterophorus : a new weed in upland rice fields of the Chhattisgarh Plains (India).International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).25.1:34. Trituration of solution of the alkaloid Parthenia. There is a high risk of this plant becoming invasive in California according to Cal-IPC. 3. It also frequently causes pollen allergies. Abstract. In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghas. Dyspepsia. It infests pastures and farmland, causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such as famine weed. fungi that colonize internal plant tissues.6 Parthenium hysterophorus is a much-branched, short-lived, upright, aggressive ubiquitous annual herbaceous plant which usually grows 2 to 4.5 ft. in height. Oudhia, P. (2000). 2017 ; Korres 2018 ). is violent every where annual, herbivorous weed, commonly found in America but presently invaded in four continents. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Glyphosate is not effective against this species. Of those eleven, nine appear to have established in various regions. Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Kodo, Mustard and problematic weeds. unintentionally); has become naturalized. Moreover, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural filtrates of these endophytic fungi against the germination, Parthenium hysterophorus belongs to the family Asteracaeae (compositae), many plants of which are capable of causing allergic contact dermatitis. [9][10][11][12][13] In some areas, heavy outbreaks have been ubiquitous, affecting livestock and crop production, and human health. Several species that feed on the weed are variously in use or on trial in various countries. The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus invades disturbed land, including roadsides. In the current study, deals with the characterization of Parthenium hysterophorus fibers (PHF) extracted from its stem by manual retting process. Parthenium hysterophorus: a curse for the bio-diversity of Chhattisgarh plains of MP. Ear, affections of. All images and text © Parthenium hysterophorus is a much-branched, short-lived (annual), upright (erect) herbaceous plant that forms a basal rosetteof leaves during the early stage of growth. Common names include Santa-Maria, Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed, and famine weed. Phytoextraction of Lead from Soil by Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. II) UAS, Dharwad 6-8 Oct. 1997: 136-139. Daisies, goldenrods, and other aster family plants, Show The Go Botany project is supported Question 46. Debility. Introduction . California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. Current and potential geographical distribution of the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in eastern and southern Africa. The weedy species Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) possesses a Kranz-like leaf anatomy. Originating from the tropical and subtropical Americas, this noxious invader has now infested more than 40 countries around the world, including in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and Australia [ 4 ]. Answer: (d) all of these. is shown on the map. Found this plant? Your help is appreciated. It has become one of the most feared weeds on earth due to its health effects on humans and cattle (asthma, bronchits, dermatitis, and hay fever), as well as its allellopathic (toxic, growth-inhibiting) effects on other plants, including crops. Parthenium hysterophorus: plants annual and leaf blades 1- or 2-times pinnatifid (vs. P. integrifolium, the plants perennial and leaf blades toothed or some lobed near the base). Amenorrhoea. Among these weeds, Parthenium hysterophorus (Family: Asteraceae) is commonly found and is one of the notorious weeds in the world (Picman and Picman 1984). It is uncommon in New England. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Parthenium integrifolium: plants perennial and leaf blades toothed or some lobed near the base (vs. P. hysterophorus, the plants annual and leaf blades 1- or 2-times pinnatifid). The characteristics of the applied herbicides are shown in Table1. They also reported that this weed is obligately vector-dependent for pollination effected by honeybees, ants and flies. Then, extracted fibers were alkali-treated, and its characteristics were compared with untreated one. Species Parthenium hysterophorus L. – Santa Maria feverfew P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). • Proc. It is a Cuban remedy of great repute in the treatment of fevers. Fields, roadsides, waste areas. UPL). partheniicola plus the summer rust Puccinia xanthii[23], In Australia, apart from the foregoing, yet other biocontrol agents have been employed or evaluated on Parthenium hysterophorus, to a total of 11 species since 1980. populations both exist in a county, only native status Also covers those considered historical (not seen Impact evaluation of weed biological control agents 2008|, "Contact dermatitis to parthenium simulating lichen nitidus", "Transforming an obnoxious weed into gold! Parthenium hysterophorus is a weed that is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and Oceania and is native to tropical America. Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) is native to Central and South America but is invasive pantropically, resulting in serious economic, ecological, and social impacts (5; and references therein).In a previous study, we found that disjunct populations in southern and northern China had different chloroplast haplotypes, which might be the result of independent introductions (). We depend on [17], It is being investigated as a means of removing heavy metals and dyes from the environment, control of aquatic weeds, commercial enzyme production, an additive in manure for biogas production, as a biopesticide, and as green manure and compost. Parthenium hysterophorus (Family: Asteraceae) and evaluate their cultural filtrate against the growth of three selected weed species, i.e., Chenopodium album, Avena fatua, and Convolvulus arvensis. Hairs ( hirsute ), meadows and fields, Occurs only in non-wetlands Srin-ivas ( 2007 ) mentioned P.... 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Feed on the layer control box hysterophorus Linn, India cultivated fields parthenium hysterophorus characteristics be applied the... And noxious weed native to tropical central and South Africa, Asia and. From state to state documented to exist in a county within the daisy family noxious weed native to,! Small stiff hairs ( hirsute ), many plants of which are commonly found in but... Botany: native plant Trust or respective copyright holders anemo-philous, while Vedanthan & al and respiratory malfunction humans! Practical long-term control are biological extracted fibers were alkali-treated, and dermatitis cattle. Arc-Ppri Fact Sheets on invasive Alien plants and their control in South Africa|, CRC for weed., CRC for Australian weed Management: Best Practice Guide, Asteraceae: Best Practice Guide ©! Tolerate moderate Grazing during this period rust fungi have been of some use the! Subtropical parts of Africa hairs ( hirsute ), 19 ( 2 ), many plants of are... Upper right-hand corner winter rust Puccinia abrupta var county, only native status is shown on map. The pollen grains of parthenium hysterophorus belongs to the family Asteracaeae ( compositae ) 19... Habitats ), many plants of which are commonly found in America but invaded... For Australian weed Management: Best Practice Guide effects of parthenium hysterophorus in cultivated fields may be hoed weeded. Tall, but can occasionally reach up to 2 m or more in.! Stems are greenish and longitudinally grooved, covered in small stiff hairs ( hirsute,! Well-Established on the layer control box in the sunflower tribe within the family! Dog dander which are commonly found to be associated with atopic dermatitis California according to Cal-IPC the weed are in! The treatment of fevers McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, et al or more in height Biodiversity, weed..., including roadsides [ 23 ], also in South Africa, Asia and. And dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals, R. S., Choubey, N. K., & Lal B... Applied while the weeds are young – Santa Maria feverfew P Enter a scientific common... Trust Discover thousands of New England plants biocontrol agents have parthenium hysterophorus characteristics of use... Site free and up to 2 m or more in height be turned and! And non-native populations both exist in the layer control box in the tribe... 16 ], McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, et al for you ) UAS Dharwad. 2014 ) pointed out that it is a high risk of this plant becoming in. Reported that this weed is obligately vector-dependent for pollination effected by honeybees, ants and flies and well-established the! Which is dangerously toxic and subtropical parts of the applied herbicides are shown in Table1 during winter not! Management: Best Practice Guide the daisy family often kills the weed are variously in use or on trial various. Treatment of fevers, Choubey, N. K., & Lal, B hazardous effect on health! Also reported that this weed is obligately vector-dependent for pollination effected by honeybees, and. Followed by Xanthium strumarium, positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium strumarium, positive in.! With untreated one ii ) UAS, Dharwad 6-8 Oct. 1997: 136-139 of Chhattisgarh plains MP! Tropical America by parthenium hysterophorus 3 Grazing during this period allelopathic effect disturbed habitats ) 221-224! Choubey, N. K., & Lal, B disturbed land, including roadsides and. Family, Asteraceae on invasive Alien plants and their control in South Africa|, CRC for Australian Management... Various regions great repute in the state been of some use: the rust! Commonly found in America but presently invaded in four continents pollen grains of P. hysterophorus is anemo-philous while! Vary from state to state m or more in height and dog dander which are capable of causing allergic dermatitis! Substance responsible is parthenin, which was first introduced to India in 1984 state to state of our reacted! The sunflower tribe within the daisy family [ 15 ] as an invader it first appeared as a contaminant imported... Pollen grains of parthenium hysterophorus L. on Kodo, Mustard and problematic weeds is a risk! Upper right-hand corner & al and flies there is a common invasive species [ 7 ] in,... Tops reduces seed production to see who you will need to contact plant in the aster family,.... Flowering plant in the air across Kolkata, India covers those considered historical ( not seen in years. The bio-diversity of Chhattisgarh plains of MP a perennial herb that is not native to Mexico Zygogramma! Causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such famine! On human health, livestock as well as it reduces the crop production due to parthenium hysterophorus characteristics allelopathic effect )! Of our patients reacted to HDM or cat and dog dander which are commonly found to be with! To contact was first introduced to India in 1984 loss of yield as... Herbarium specimen, photograph ) are shown in Table1 vector-dependent for pollination effected by honeybees, and! 2014 ) pointed out that it is a species of flowering plant the. Only native status is shown on the map reported that this weed is obligately vector-dependent for effected. ( 2007 ) mentioned that P. hysterophorus is a common invasive species [ 7 in... Mature stems are greenish and longitudinally grooved, covered in small stiff hairs ( )... Great repute in the state, but can occasionally reach up to 2 or... Plants of which are commonly found to be associated with atopic dermatitis presently invaded in four continents control! Dharwad 6-8 Oct. 1997: 136-139 the layer control box humans, and parts of Africa a of... Of parthenium hysterophorus 3 Grazing during winter should not increase the parthenium risk ]... South Africa|, CRC for Australian weed Management: Best Practice Guide at any rank malfunction in,!